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Matches 301 to 350 of 5284
|301||At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld.||Living
|302||4/17/818 Milan, Lonbardy.||Bernard, King Of Italy
|303||Bernard (797, Vermandois, Normandy – 17 April 818, Milan, Lombardy) was the King of Italy from 810 to 818. He plotted against his uncle, Emperor Louis the Pious, when the latter's Ordinatio Imperii made Bernard a vassal of his cousin Lothair. When his plot was discovered, Louis had him blinded, a procedure which killed him.|
Bernard was the illegitimate son of King Pepin of Italy, the second legitimate son of the Emperor Charlemagne. In 810, Pepin died from an illness contracted at a siege of Venice; although Bernard was illegitimate, Charlemagne allowed him to inherit Italy. Bernard married Cunigunda of Laon in 813. They had one son, Pepin, Count of Vermandois.
Prior to 817, Bernard was a trusted agent of his grandfather, and of his uncle. His rights in Italy were respected, and he was used as an intermediary to manage events in his sphere of influence - for example, when in 815 Louis the Pious received reports that some Roman nobles had conspired to murder Pope Leo III, and that he had responded by butchering the ringleaders, Bernard was sent to investigate the matter.
A change came in 817, when Louis the Pious drew up an Ordinatio Imperii, detailing the future of the Frankish Empire. Under this, the bulk of the Frankish territory went to Louis' eldest son, Lothair; Bernard received no further territory, and although his Kingship of Italy was confirmed, he would be a vassal of Lothair. This was, it was later alleged, the work of the Empress, Ermengarde, who wished Bernard to be displaced in favour of her own sons. Resenting Louis' actions, Bernard began plotting with a group of magnates: Eggideo, Reginhard, and Reginhar, the last being the grandson of a Thuringian rebel against Charlemagne, Hardrad. Anshelm, Bishop of Milan and Theodulf, Bishop of Orléans, were also accused of being involved: there is no evidence either to support or contradict this in the case of Theodulf, whilst the case for Anshelm is murkier.
Bernard's main complaint was the notion of his being a vassal of Lothair. In practical terms, his actual position had not been altered at all by the terms of the decree, and he could safely have continued to rule under such a system. Nonetheless, "partly true" reports came to Louis the Pious that his nephew was planning to set up an 'unlawful' - i.e. independent - regime in Italy.
Louis the Pious reacted swiftly to the plot, marching south to Chalon. Bernard and his associates were taken by surprise; Bernard travelled to Chalon in an attempt to negotiate terms, but he and the ringleaders were forced to surrender to him. Louis had them taken to Aix-la-Chapelle, where they were tried and condemned to death. Louis 'mercifully' commuted their sentences to blinding, which would neutralise Bernard as a threat without actually killing him; however, the process of blinding (carried out by means of pressing a red-hot stiletto to the eyeballs) proved so traumatic that Bernard died in agony two days after the procedure was carried out. At the same time, Louis also had his half-brothers Drogo, Hugh and Theoderic tonsured and confined to monasteries, to prevent other Carolingian off-shoots challenging the main line. He also treated those guilty or suspected of conspiring with Bernard treated harshly: Theodulf of Orleans was gaoled, and died soon afterwards; the lay conspirators were blinded, the clerics deposed and imprisoned; all lost lands and honours.
His Kingdom of Italy was reabsorbed into the Frankish empire, and soon after bestowed upon Louis' eldest son Lothair. In 822, Louis made a display of public penance at Attigny, where he confessed before all the court to having sinfully slain his nephew; he also welcomed his half-brothers back into his favour. These actions possibly stemmed from guilt over his part in Bernard's death. It has been argued by some historians that his behaviour left him open to clerical domination, and reduced his prestige and respect amongst the Frankish nobility. Others, however, point out that Bernard's plot had been a serious threat to the stability of the kingdom, and the reaction no less a threat; Louis' display of penance, then, "was a well-judged gesture to restore harmony and re-establish his authority."
|Bernard, King Of Italy
|304||Bertrada of Laon, also called Bertha Broadfoot (cf. Latin: Regina pede aucae i.e. the queen with the goose-foot), (between 710 and 727 – July 12, 783) was a Frankish queen. She was born in Laon, in today's Aisne, France, the daughter of Caribert of Laon. She married Pepin the Short, the son of the Frankish Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel, in 740, although the union was not canonically sanctioned until several years later. Eleven years later, in 751, Pepin and Bertrada became King and Queen of the Franks, following Pepin's successful coup against the Frankish Merovingian monarchs.|
Bertrada and Pepin are known to have had four children, three sons and one daughter: of these, Charles (Charlemagne), Carloman, and Gisela survived to adulthood, whilst Pepin died in infancy. Charlemagne and Carloman would inherit the two halves of their father's kingdom when he died, and Gisela became a nun.
Bertrada lived at the court of her elder son Charles, and according to Einhard their relationship was excellent. She recommended he marry his first wife, Desiderata, a daughter of the Lombard king Desiderius, but he soon divorced her. Einhard claims this was the only episode that ever strained relations between mother and son. Bertrada lived with Charlemagne until her death in 783; the king buried her in Saint Denis Basilica with great honors.
|Bertrada II, of Laon
|305||She was listed as Bessie Mathiews, a white female of 29 years. The worked to keep house. She and her parents were born in Louisiana.||Bessie
|306||Carloman (between 706 and 716 – 17 August 754) was the eldest son of Charles Martel, major domo or mayor of the palace and duke of the Franks, and his wife Chrotrud. On Charles' death (741), Carloman and his brother Pippin the Short succeeded to their father's legal positions, Carloman in Austrasia, and Pippin in Neustria. He was a member of the family later called the Carolingians and it can be argued that he was instrumental in consolidating their power at the expense of the ruling Merovingian kings of the Franks. He withdrew from public life in 747 to take up the monastic habit.||Carloman
|307||Carloman I (28 June 751 – December 4, 771) was the king of the Franks from 768 until his death in 771. He was the second surviving son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon. He was a younger brother of Charlemagne.|
Carloman I stands in the unfortunate position of having been written of only by writers prejudiced against him, who portray him as peevish, self-pitying and easily flattered. Little is known of him, except such as touches upon his more famous father and brother.
|Carloman, King of Franks
|308||Destined from childhood to life in a monastery, Carloman revolted against his father who was then imprisoned in Senlis. Under orders from Pope Adrian II, Charles freed his sons obliged them to follow him in his expedition against Girart de Roussillon in 870. Carloman abandoned his father and, with an army of deserters, sacked the regions of Reims and Belgium. He was captured by his father in 870. Through the mediation of Hincmar, Archbishop of Reims, Charles demanded the excommunication of his son. This was approved by a majority of the bishops. In 873, Charles the Bald ordered for Carloman to be blinded and imprisoned in Corbie. After being blinded, Carloman escaped and took refuge in the kingdom of his uncle, Louis the German. He retired to the Abbey of Echternach, where he died in 876.||Carloman
|309||Carloman II (c. 866 – 12 December 884), King of Western Francia, was the youngest son of King Louis the Stammerer and Ansgarde of Burgundy, and became king, jointly with his brother Louis III of France, on his father's death in 879.|
Some nobles advocated electing a sole king, but eventually both brothers were elected kings. Although doubts were cast upon their legitimacy, the brothers obtained recognition and in March 880 divided their father's realm at Amiens, Carloman receiving Burgundy and Aquitaine.
However, Duke Boso had renounced his allegiance to both brothers and had been elected King of Provence. In the summer of 880 the brothers Carloman and Louis marched against him, took Mâcon and the northern parts of Boso's realm. They united their forces with those of Charles the Fat and unsuccessfully besieged Vienne from August to November. Only in the summer of 882, Vienne was taken after being besieged by Richard, Count of Autun.
About the same time, in August 882, Carloman became sole king owing to his brother's death, but the kingdom was in a deplorable condition partly owing to incursions from the Norman raiders, and his power was very circumscribed. There were revolts of the feudal lords even in Burgundy.
Carloman met his death while hunting on December 12, 884 and was succeeded in the rule by his cousin, the Emperor Charles the Fat.
|310||At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld.||Living
|311||At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld.||Living
|312||Charlemagne (Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus, meaning Charles the Great) (2 April 742 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks from 768 to his death. He expanded the Frankish kingdoms into a Frankish Empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800 as a rival of the Byzantine Emperor in Constantinople. His rule is also associated with the Carolingian Renaissance, a revival of art, religion, and culture through the medium of the Catholic Church. Through his foreign conquests and internal reforms, Charlemagne helped define both Western Europe and the Middle Ages. He is numbered as Charles I in the regnal lists of France, Germany, and the Holy Roman Empire.|
The son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, he succeeded his father and co-ruled with his brother Carloman I. The latter got on badly with Charlemagne, but war was prevented by the sudden death of Carloman in 771. Charlemagne continued the policy of his father towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in Italy, and waging war on the Saracens, who menaced his realm from Spain. It was during one of these campaigns that Charlemagne experienced the worst defeat of his life, at the Battle of Roncesvalles (778) memorialised in the Song of Roland. He also campaigned against the peoples to his east, especially the Saxons, and after a protracted war subjected them to his rule. By forcibly converting them to Christianity, he integrated them into his realm and thus paved the way for the later Ottonian dynasty.
Today he is regarded not only as the founding father of both French and German monarchies, but also as the father of Europe: his empire united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Romans, and the Carolingian renaissance encouraged the formation of a common European identity.
|Charlemagne, Emperor of the West
|313||Charles of Lorraine (Laon, 953–993 in Orléans) was the son of Louis IV of France and Gerberga of Saxony and younger brother of King Lothair. He was a sixth generation descendant of Charlemagne.|
Charles was excluded from the throne of France, and the German Emperor Otto II, made him duke of Lower Lorraine in 977.
His father probably gave him royal powers in Burgundy, but Lothair took them back upon reaching his majority. In 977, he accused Lothair's wife, Emma, daughter of Lothair II of Italy, of infideility with Adalberon, Bishop of Laon. The council of Sainte-Macre at Fismes (near Reims) exonerated the queen and the bishop, but Charles maintained his claim and was driven from the kingdom, finding refuge at the court of his cousin, Otto II. Otto promised to crown Charles as soon as Lothair was out of the way and Charles paid him homage, receiving back Lower Lorraine.
In August 978, Lothair invaded Germany and captured the imperial capital of Aachen, but failed to capture either Otto or Charles. In October, Otto and Charles in turn invaded France, devastating the land around Rheims, Soissons, and Laon. In the latter city, the chief seat of the kings of France, Charles was crowned by Theodoric I, Bishop of Metz. Lothair fled to Paris and was there besieged. But a relief army of Hugh Capet's forced Otto and Charles to lift the siege on 30 November. Lothair and Capet, the tables turned once more, chased the German king and his liege back to Aachen and retook Laon.
As he had been a vassal also of Lothair, his acts on behalf of Otto were considered treason and he was thereafter excluded from the throne. On Lothair's death (986), the magnates elected his son Louis V and on the latter's death (987), Hugh Capet. Thus, the House of Capet came to the throne over the disgraced and ignored Charles. Charles' marriage to the lowborn daughter of a vassal of Hugh was championed by his opponents as a cardinal reason to deny him the throne. In order to have free hand towards France, he resigned his duchy to regency of his eldest son Otto. Charles made war on Hugh, even taking Rheims and Laon. However, on Maundy Thursday 991 26 March, he was captured, through the perfidy of the Bishop Adalberon, and with his young second son Louis imprisoned by Hugh in Orléans, where he died a short while later, in or before 993.
In 1666, the sepulchre of Charles was discovered in the Basilica of Saint-Servais in Maastricht. His skin appears to have been interred there only in 1001, but that is not the date of his death, as some scholars assumed. Though Charles ruled Lower Lorraine, the Dukes of Lorraine (Upper Lotharingia) counted him as Charles I of Lorraine.
|Charles, Duke of Lower Lorraine
|314||Charles the Child (Latin Karolus puer, from the Annales Bertiniani; 847/848, Frankfurt am Main – 29 September 866, Buzançais) was the King of Aquitaine from October 855 until his death in 866. If his father, Charles the Bald, and great grandfather, Charlemagne, are counted as rulers of Aquitaine, he would be numbered Charles III.|
He was the second son of Charles the Bald and brother of Louis the Stammerer. The younger Charles was appointed by his father, who had previously ruled as King of Aquitaine himself from 838, as a sop to Aquitainian separatism. The Aquitainians had previously rebelled against Charles the Bald, requesting from Louis the German that he send one of his sons to rule over them. Louis had sent sent his second son, Louis the Younger, prompting Charles the Bald to release his rival claimant to Aquitaine, Pippin II. Pippin succeeded in rallying the nobles to support himself and Charles the Bald against Louis the Younger, who was driven out. By October, however, Pippin lost his popularity with the still-rebellious Aquitainians, prompting Charles the Bald to appoint Charles the Child as King. Charles the Child was duly anointed at Limoges. Within a year, he had been replaced by the Aquitainians with Pippin II; these same then deposed Pippin and restored Charles the Child. Pippin was then captured in 864 and imprisoned at Senlis, from whence he disappears from history.
Unlike previous sub-kings of Aquitaine, (Louis the Pious, Pippin I, Pippin II), Charles the Child had no real authority at all. Before 840, the Kingdom had been ruled in person by an autonomous king; Charles the Bald, however, after his accession as King of Western Francia, attempted to maintain power in Aquitaine. Consequently, Charles the Child, and his brother, Louis the Stammerer, did not rule in person, had no chancery, could issue no instruments; they were no longer empowered to bestow privileges, endow religious establishments, or dispose of royal property. All the rights of the region were invested in Charles the Bald, in whose absence the nobles of the Kingdom gathered power.
Nonetheless, as Charles grew older, he began to exercise what little personal authority he could: for example, he chose and married a wife in 862 against the will of his father. His wife is unknown, although she was apparently the widow of a count named Humbert. Charles the Bald however reasserted his power over his son in 863, forcing the younger Charles to put away his wife and be loyal to his father. A year later, he was accidentally struck in the head by a sword-swipe; the blow left him mentally incapacitated until his resultant death in 866. He died childless, and was buried in Bourges.
|Charles, The Child
|315||Charles the Younger (ca. 772 – 4 December 811), was the second son of Charlemagne and the first by his second wife, Hildegard of Swabia. When Charlemagne divided his empire among his sons, his son Charles was designated King of the Franks.|
His elder brother, Pippin the Hunchback, was disinherited, and his younger brothers Carloman (renamed Pippin) and Louis the Pious received Italy and Aquitaine, respectively.
Charles was mostly preoccupied with the Bretons, whose border he shared and who insurrected on at least two occasions and were easily put down, but he was also sent against the Saxons on multiple occasions. Charles' father outlived him, however, and the entire kingdom thus went to his younger brother Louis the Pious, Pippin also having died.
Around 789 it was suggested by Charlemagne that Charles the Younger should be married to Offa's daughter Ælfflæd. Offa insisted that the marriage could only go ahead if Charlemagne's daughter Bertha was married to Offa's son Ecgfrith. Charlemagne took offence, broke off contact, and closed his ports to English traders. Eventually, normal relations were reestablished and the ports were reopened. Just a few years later, in 796, Charlemagne and Offa concluded the first commercial treaty known in English history.
His father associated Charles in the government of Francia and Saxony in 790, and installed him as ruler of the ducatus Cenomannicus (corresponding to the later Duchy of Maine). Charles was crowned King of the Franks at Rome December 25, 800, the same day his father was crowned Emperor.
On 4 December 811, in Bavaria, Charles had a stroke and died. He left no children.
|Charles, The Younger
|316||Died of a stroke.||Charles, The Younger
|317||Duke of Ingelheim.||Charles, The Younger
|318||He was born on 13 June 823 in Frankfurt, when his elder brothers were already adults and had been assigned their own regna, or subkingdoms, by their father. The attempts made by Louis the Pious to assign Charles a subkingdom, first Alemannia and then the country between the Meuse and the Pyrenees (in 832, after the rising of Pepin I of Aquitaine) were unsuccessful. The numerous reconciliations with the rebellious Lothair and Pepin, as well as their brother Louis the German, King of Bavaria, made Charles's share in Aquitaine and Italy only temporary, but his father did not give up and made Charles the heir of the entire land which was once Gaul and would eventually be France. At a diet near Crémieux in 837, Louis the Pious bade the nobles do homage to Charles as his heir. This led to the final rising of his sons against him and Pepin of Aquitaine died in 838, whereupon Charles received that kingdom, finally once and for all. Pepin's son Pepin II would be a perpetual thorn in his side.|
The death of the emperor in 840 led to the outbreak of war between his sons. Charles allied himself with his brother Louis the German to resist the pretensions of the new emperor Lothair I, and the two allies defeated Lothair at the Battle of Fontenay-en-Puisaye on June 25, 841. In the following year, the two brothers confirmed their alliance by the celebrated Oaths of Strasbourg. The war was brought to an end by the Treaty of Verdun in August 843. The settlement gave Charles the Bald the kingdom of the West Franks, which he had been up till then governing and which practically corresponded with what is now France, as far as the Meuse, the Saône, and the Rhône, with the addition of the Spanish March as far as the Ebro. Louis received the eastern part of the Carolingian Empire, known as the East Francia and later Germany. Lothair retained the imperial title and the Iron Crown of Lombardy. He also received the central regions from Flanders through the Rhineland and Burgundy as king of Middle Francia.
The first years of Charles's reign, up to the death of Lothair I in 855, were comparatively peaceful. During these years the three brothers continued the system of "confraternal government", meeting repeatedly with one another, at Koblenz (848), at Meerssen (851), and at Attigny (854). In 858, Louis the German, invited by disaffected nobles eager to oust Charles, invaded the West Frankish kingdom. Charles was so unpopular that he was unable to summon an army, and he fled to Burgundy. He was saved only by the support of the bishops, who refused to crown Louis king, and by the fidelity of the Welfs, who were related to his mother, Judith. In 860, he in his turn tried to seize the kingdom of his nephew, Charles of Provence, but was repulsed. On the death of his nephew Lothair II in 869, Charles tried to seize Lothair's dominions, but by the Treaty of Mersen (870) was compelled to share them with Louis the German.
Besides these family disputes, Charles had to struggle against repeated rebellions in Aquitaine and against the Bretons. Led by their chiefs Nomenoë and Erispoë, who defeated the king at Ballon (845) and Juvardeil (851), the Bretons were successful in obtaining a de facto independence. Charles also fought against the Vikings, who devastated the country of the north, the valleys of the Seine and Loire, and even up to the borders of Aquitaine. Several times Charles was forced to purchase their retreat at a heavy price. Charles led various expeditions against the invaders and, by the Edict of Pistres of 864, made the army more mobile by providing for a cavalry element, the predecessor of the French chivalry so famous during the next 600 years. By the same edict, he ordered fortified bridges to be put up at all rivers to block the Viking incursions. Two of these bridges at Paris saved the city during its siege of 885–886.
Charles the Bald in old age; picture from his PsalterIn 875, after the death of the Emperor Louis II (son of his half-brother Lothair), Charles the Bald, supported by Pope John VIII, traveled to Italy, receiving the royal crown at Pavia and the imperial insignia in Rome on December 29. Louis the German, also a candidate for the succession of Louis II, revenged himself by invading and devastating Charles' dominions, and Charles had to return hastily to Francia. After the death of Louis the German (28 August 876), Charles in his turn attempted to seize Louis's kingdom, but was decisively beaten at Andernach on October 8, 876. In the meantime, John VIII, menaced by the Saracens, was urging Charles to come to his defence in Italy. Charles again crossed the Alps, but this expedition was received with little enthusiasm by the nobles, and even by his regent in Lombardy, Boso, and they refused to join his army. At the same time Carloman, son of Louis the German, entered northern Italy. Charles, ill and in great distress, started on his way back to Gaul, but died while crossing the pass of Mont Cenis at Brides-les-Bains, on 6 October 877.
According to the Annals of St-Bertin, Charles was hastily buried at the abbey of Nantua, Burgundy because the bearers were unable to withstand the stench of his decaying body. He was to have been buried in the Basilique Saint-Denis and may have been transferred there later. It was recorded that there was a memorial brass there that was melted down at the Revolution.
Charles was succeeded by his son, Louis. Charles was a prince of education and letters, a friend of the church, and conscious of the support he could find in the episcopate against his unruly nobles, for he chose his councillors from among the higher clergy, as in the case of Guenelon of Sens, who betrayed him, and of Hincmar of Reims.
|Charles II The Bald, King of the Franks
|319||Charles III (September 17, 879 – October 7, 929), called the Simple or the Straightforward (from the contemporary Latin: Karolus Simplex), was a member of the Carolingian dynasty who ruled as King of Western Francia from 893 to 922/923.|
He was the posthumous son of King Louis the Stammerer and his second wife Adelaide of Paris. Charles first married Frederonne who died in 917 and then Eadgifu, the daughter of Edward the Elder of England, on October 7, 919.
As a child, Charles was prevented from succeeding to the throne at the time of the death in 884 of his half-brother Carloman or at the time of the deposition of the Holy Roman Emperor, his uncle Charles the Fat, in 887. Instead, Odo, Count of Paris, succeeded Charles the Fat. Nonetheless, Charles was crowned by some nobles in 893. Charles became sole king at the age of nineteen upon the death of Odo in 898.
In 911 Charles gave the lower Seine area, eventually known as Normandy, as a fief to the Norse leader Rollo in the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, thereby ending the series of Viking raids into France.
In 922 some of the barons (including Herbert II of Vermandois) revolted and crowned Robert I, brother of Odo, king. In 923, at the battle of Soissons, King Robert was killed, but Charles was also defeated. Rudolph, Duke of Burgundy was elected king, and Charles was imprisoned.
Charles died on October 7, 929, in prison at Péronne (Somme, France) and was buried there at the abbey of St. Fursy. His son with Eadgifu would eventually be crowned in 936 as Louis IV of France and his daughter Gisela was married in 911 to Rollo of Normandy.
|Charles III, King of West Francia
|320||Charles 'Martel', Majoy of the Palace of Austrasia ruled the Merovingian Franks from 719 to 741. He used only the title Mayor of the Palace, but he actually had the power of a king. Most of the lawful Frankish kings of this period were weak. In 732, Charles defeatd the invading Moslems in the famous Battle of Tours nears Poitiers. For repeatedly attacking the Moslems, Charles later received the title of Martel, meaning the Hammer. He abuilt an army of mounted men by seizing church estates. Charles supported Saint Boniface in his reform of the Frankish church.||Charles Martel (the Hammer), King of Franks
|321||Monastery||Charles Martel (the Hammer), King of Franks
|322||Childebrand (678, Heristal-751) was a Frankish duke (dux), son of Pepin of Heristal and Alpaida, brother of Charles Martel. He married Emma of Austrasia and was given Burgundy by his father. He distinguished himself in the expulsion of the Saracens from France.|
He was the patron of the continuator of the Chronicle of Fredegar, as was his son Nibelung, count of the Vexin.
|323||At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld.||Living
|324||At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld.||Living
|325||At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld.||Living
|326||She is listed as Clemonce Lafont, a widowed white female of 73 years. The mother-in-law or Toney A. Creppel. She had no formal education, was born in Louisiana and listed as unable to work.||Clemonce
|327||At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld.||Living
|328||Desiderius (also known as Daufer or Dauferius; Didier in French and Desiderio in Italian) was the last king of the Lombard Kingdom of northern Italy (died c. 786). He is chiefly known for his connection to Charlemagne, who married his daughter and conquered his realm.||Desiderius, King of the Lombards
|329||She was listed as a 27 year old white female married to Benjamin for the last 9 years. She and her parents were born in Georgia. She gave birth to 2 children still living in 1900. She spoke English and could read and write.||Dollie
|330||Drogo (670–708), son of Pepin the Middle and Plectrude, was the duke of Champagne by appointment of his father in 690 and duke of Burgundy from the death of Nordebert in 697. He was the mayor of the palace of Burgundy from 695.|
He married Anstrude, the daughter of Ansflede and Waratton, the former mayor of the palace of Neustria and Burgundy, and also the widow of the mayor of the palace Berthar. They had four sons, being:
Hugh (d.730), abbot of Fontenelle (now Saint-Wandrille) and Jumièges, archbishop of Rouen, and bishop of Paris and Bayeux
Arnulf (c.690-c.721), duke of Champagne
Godfrey (Gottfried, Godefroid, or Geoffrey)
Drogo predeceased his father and left the duchy of Champagne to his second-eldest son Arnulf, as the first born Hugh had entered a monastery. Drogo is buried in Metz in St-Pierre-aux-Nonnains.
|Drogo, Duke of Champagne
|331||Drogo, also known as Dreux or Drogon (June 17, 801-December 8, 855) was an illegitimate son of Frankish emperor Charlemagne by the concubine Regina.|
As one of the few children to outlive his father, Drogo's prospects for political power were very favourable. Only one older son of Charlemagne remained, and was eager to ensure his few opponents were placated. He became a cleric in 818, abbot of Luxeuil in 820, acceded to become bishop of Metz in 823 and arch chapter in 834 in which position he remained for the duration of his life. His younger (full) brother, Hugh, was also ordained. He remained extremely loyal to his (half) brother, Louis the Pious and amassed great power under him. Drogo's influence began to wane after Louis' death, and his influence fell even more after the death of his only full brother Hugh in 844. Still, he managed to ensure the production of the Drogo Sacramentary, which is named for him. He is interred at Abbey Church of St. Arnulf in Metz.
|Drogo, Bishop of Metz
|332||Eadgifu or Edgifu (Old English: Eadgifu; 902 – after 955) was a daughte] of Edward the Elder, King of Wessex and England, and his second wife Ælfflæd. She was born in Wessex.|
Marriage to the French King
She was the second wife of King Charles III of France, whom she married in 919 after the death of his first wife, Frederonne; she was mother to Louis IV of France.
In 922 Charles III was deposed and the next year taken prisoner by Count Herbert II of Vermandois, an ally of the present King. To protect her son's safety Eadgifu took him to England in 923 to the court of her half-brother, Athelstan of England. Because of this, Louis IV of France became known as Louis d'Outremer of France. He stayed there until 936, when he was called back to France to be crowned King. Eadgifu accompanied him.
She retired to a convent in Laon. Then, in 951, she left the convent and married Herbert III, Count of Vermandois.
|Eadgifu, Of England
|333||At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld.||Living
|334||Alpaida (Elfide, Chalpaida) was Pepin II's (635 or 640 - December 16, 714) concubine and mother to Pepin II's illegitimate son, Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer) (d. October 22, 741).||Elphide
|335||She was listed as a white female of 21 years of age. She was married to Alexander S. Holden for less than a year and had no children as of 1900. She and her mother were born in Georgia, while her father was born in North Carolina. She spoke English and could read and write.||Emana T.
|336||Ermentrude of Orléans (27 September 823 – 6 October 869) was Queen of Franks by her marriage to Charles the Bald, Holy Roman Emperor and King of West Francia. She was the daughter of Odo, Count of Orleans and his wife, Engeltrude.|
She and Charles married in 842. Their children were:
Judith of Flanders, consort of Æthelwulf of Wessex, Æthelbald of Wessex, and Baldwin I, Count of Flanders
Louis the Stammerer (846–879)
Charles the Child (847–866)
Lothar (848–865), monk in 861, became Abbot of Saint-Germain
Carloman, son of Charles the Bald (849–876)
Rotrud (852–912), a nun
Ermentrud (854–877), a nun
Hildegard (born 856, died ?)
Ermentrude had a gift for embroidery and an interest in religious foundations. Her husband gave her the Abbey of Chelles. She separated from her husband after he executed her rebellious brother William in 866, and retreated to the life of a nunnery. Ermentrude was buried in the Basilique Saint-Denis, Paris, France.
|Ermentrude, of Orleans
|337||The book listed Dominigue Henry Billiot as Eulalie's father. Previous research states that D. H. Billiot drowned in a canal and was single.||Eulalie Billiot
|338||Inscription reads Eva Mae Knight Dec 16 1908 - Mar 23 1997 "A Mother Grandmoter and Friend - To Know Her Was To Love Her"||Eva Mae
|339||Listed as Eva Mae, a white female of 26 years. She had an 8th grade education and worked as a housewife. She was born in Florida.||Eva Mae
|340||She was lsited as a white female of 35 years. She had an 8th grade education and worked as a housewife. She was born in Florida.||Eva Mae
|341||At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld.||Living
|342||(Catholic Church. Diocese of Baton Rouge, ASM 4:238)||Filarium (Philarium, Philerom)
|343||(Marguerit is identified as the mother of Filarum/Philarum).||Filarium (Philarium, Philerom)
|344||At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld.||Living
|345||Frederonne (French: Frédérune or Frérone) (887 – 917) was the sister of the Bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne, and the first wife of King Charles III of France, whom she married in 907. She bore him only girls.|
Very pious, she was repudiated by the King, and died in Lorraine. She was succeeded by Eadgifu of England, a daughter of Edward the Elder of Mercia.
|346||Gerberga of Saxony (c. 913–5 May 984) was a daughter of Henry the Fowler, king of Germany, and Matilda of Ringelheim.|
She married first Gilbert, Duke of Lorraine. They had four children:
Alberade of Lorraine b. about 929. Married Renaud (originally as Ragenold), a Viking chieftain who became the Count of Roucy .
Henri, Duke of Lorraine b. about 932
Gerberge of Lorraine b. about 935. Married Adalbert I of Vermandois.
Wiltrude, b. about 937.
She married secondly Louis IV of France in 939. They were parents to eight children:
Lothair of France (941-986)
Mathilde b. about 943; married Conrad of Burgundy
Hildegarde b. about 944
Carloman b. about 945
Louis b. about 948
Charles, Duke of Lower Lorraine (953-993)
Alberade b. before 953
Henri b. about 953
Contemporary sources describe her as a highly educated, intelligent and forceful player in the political game of the time.
Louis IV died on 10 September 954. As a widow, Gerberga became a nun and served as the abbess of Notre Dame in Laon. She died in Reims, Champagne.
|Gerberga, Of Saxony
|347||At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld.||Living
|348||Gisela (757 – 810) was the only daughter of Pepin the Short and his wife Bertrada of Laon. She was the sister of Charlemagne and Carloman. Charlemagne's biographer Einhard states that Gisela had been dedicated to religion since her childhood. She became a nun at Chelles Abbey, where she was eventually made abbess. As the abbess at Chelles Abbey, Gisela oversaw one of the most prolific nuns' scriptoria active in the 8th and 9th centuries. According to Einhard she had good relations with her brother Charlemagne, who "treated her with the same respect which he showed his mother." She died in 810 at the convent she had served for most of her life.|
Charlemagne and his wife Hildegard named their daughter after Gisela. Gisela the younger may have lived from 781 to 808, but little else is known of her life.
|Gisela, Abbess of Chelles
|349||Gisela (c. 781 – 808) was a daughter of Charlemagne from his marriage to Hildegard. Little is known of her life. She should not be confused with her aunt Gisela, after whom she was possibly named.||Gisela
|350||She was listed as Grace, a married female of 21 years. She could read, write and speak English. She had no occupation listed. She and her mother were born in Wisconsin, while her father was born in Ohio.||Grace